[Rhonda]: You also, just to kind of dive a
little bit deeper into some of your more recent research, you mentioned the 13 hour fast overnight
and how that was very robustly associated with the 40% reduction in breast cancer recurrence
and non-statistically significant reduction in breast cancer mortality. But you also have
looked at some of the biomarkers that are known to increase breast cancer risk. And
also there was an effect on some of those biomarkers like inflammation as well, correct?
[Ruth]: Mm-hmm. We’ve actually seen probably our most consistent effect on something called
Hemoglobin A1C, which is a marker of your average glucose, over about three months.
So interestingly enough, we saw the association both in a general sample of women from what’s
called the NHANES survey, it’s a nationally representative survey of women. We saw that
women who fasted longer had lower hemoglobin A1C, and then in our own sample of breast
cancer survivors we found the exact same association which means, you know, which to us means this
is probably strong. So that’s one of the reasons we think it might influence…have a huge
effect on reducing the risk of diabetes. As far as inflammation, interestingly enough,
we only found that it reduced inflammation among women who didn’t eat a lot of food late
at night. In other words, you know, if you’re fasting interval was 9 p.m. to 9 a.m., it
didn’t seem to matter. But if you’re fasting interval was early in the day, like 6 to 6,
then it seemed like the fasting interval reduced CRP, C-reactive protein, this measure of generalized
inflammation. So that’s what made us think. It’s not just the 12 hours, it’s the 12 hours
only if they start fairly early in the evening. That’s when the positive effects happen.